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隧洞洞挖施工方法(中译英)
来源:北京新语丝翻译公司  编辑:xinyusi  发布日期:2013-05-16 17:12

    在引水隧洞施工过程中,根据不同的围岩类别,采取不同的施工钻爆和支护措施。

    a)对Ⅱ、III类围岩洞段开挖按3.0~3.5m一个循环进行钻爆;放完炮后及时进行危石处理和随机锚杆施工;根据地质情况,局部破碎带采用挂网喷砼的措施,之后进行系统支护施工。

    b)对于IV类围岩成洞条件较好洞段开挖完后;按照1.5~2.0m一个循环进尺进行钻爆,放完炮后及时进行钢支撑支护。钢支撑间距1.2~1.5m。

    c)对于Ⅴ类围岩特差洞段及松散、破碎的岩体洞段开挖时,采取超前锚杆支护或管棚法施工,超前锚杆或钢管长度不小于开挖循环进尺长度的1.5倍,爆破结束后先素喷3~5cm砼,然后次进行系统锚杆制安,钢筋网覆设,钢支撑安装,二次喷砼。

    d)爆破采用毫秒微差爆破,导火索起爆,导爆管传爆,周边光面爆破的钻爆方法,以形成光滑平整的最终开挖断面,使在最小开挖线外的超挖最小,并达到最小的爆破应力和裂缝,在施工中按照爆破设计严格控制造孔,装药,连线,起爆各环节质量。开挖完后及时支护。

    Means of construction of the tunnel

    During the construction of the diversion tunnel, different means of blasting and supporting according to different types of wall rock.

    a) Drilling-dynamite the wall rock of type II and III with a circular by 3.0~3.5m. Clear the dangerous rocks right after blasting, followed by anchor rod construction accordingly. As for the partly crashed area, means of screen print with spray concrete is adopted, followed by supporting construction systematically.

    b) As for type IV wall rock, for the fine circumstance of excavating, drilling blasting circularly by 1.5~2.0m. Carry out steel support right after blasting with 1.2~1.5m distance between each support.

    c) Means of leading-support with anchor rod or sheltering construction is to be adopted while excavating the V-type wall rock sections and loose, crashed sections. The length of the leading anchor rod or the sheltering tube should be no less than 1.5 times the length of the circular footage. Spray 3~5cm-thick concrete after blasting and then fix the anchor rod, lay the steel shelter and steel support installation, then spray concrete again.

    d) Such means of blasting as millisecond elementary error, fuse, guiding blasting and mill finish blasting are adopted, which might form smooth excavating surface and minimum the possibility of over excavating. Meanwhile, the minimum burst stress and leak are made possible. During construction, the quality of holing, powder filling, fuse connecting and detonating must be put to watch. Support immediately after excavating.

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